An ad hominem is a verbal attack on a person rather than the person’s argument. It is logically unsound, but it is generally effective, because it attacks the person’s ethos (rather than logos), engages the audience’s pathos, and enrages the person’s pathos and pride. They defend themselves instead of discussing further the argument, and by doing so, they just play into the hands of the logically fallacious.
An ad hominem argument is as follows:
My example is as follows:
“Clean your room, it’s dirty” said the parent.
“You didn’t clean your room. You’re a hypocrite,” said the child.
Calling out hypocrisy is irrelevant to the argument that one’s room needs to be cleaned because it’s dirty.
As with ad hominem, adages are simple. An adage is “a short, pointed and memorable saying based on facts, and is considered a veritable truth by the majority of people.” Literarydevices.net claims that there is a difference between adages and proverbs, but I disagree, as does dailywritingtips.com. As that website points out, “English possesses dozens of nouns that mean ‘short sayings that encapsulate truth or wisdom passed on from previous generations.'”
Examples of adages are as follows:
An adage isn’t something I can just write, but one that I thought of that wasn’t on any of the websites I consulted is a bit of wisdom I hear from managers at restaurants:
Time to lean, time to clean.